[27], The sociologist G. S. Ghurye wrote in 1932 that, despite much study by many people, .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, we do not possess a real general definition of caste. [95] The people of high kulas were engaged in occupations of high rank, viz., agriculture, trade, cattle-keeping, computing, accounting and writing, and those of low kulas were engaged in low-ranked occupations such as basket-weaving and sweeping. Maharashtra Government has decided to gift Rs 50,000 to a couple opting for inter-caste marriage. Restrictions on feeding and social intercourse, with minute rules on the kind of food and drink that upper castes could accept from lower castes. [155] The British, coming from a society rigidly divided by class, attempted to equate India's castes with British social classes. He stressed on equal treatment for all human beings. Thus, he argued that the cause of trauma was not in the caste system, but elsewhere. [231] The census would also help the government to re-examine and possibly undo some of the policies which were formed in haste such as the Mandal Commission in order to bring more objectivity to the policies with respect to contemporary realities. [2][147][4], Jati were the basis of caste ethnology during the British colonial era. For example, Dalit people in the United States report experiencing discrimination and violence. [236], A study by Darshan Singh presents data on health and other indicators of socio-economic change in India's historically discriminated castes. [138] Bayly states that these obscure post-Mughal elites associated themselves with kings, priests and ascetics, deploying the symbols of caste and kinship to divide their populace and consolidate their power. [269], In his younger years, Gandhi disagreed with some of Ambedkar's observations, rationale and interpretations about the caste system in India. [64][65], According to Samuel, referencing George L. Hart, central aspects of the later Indian caste system may originate from the ritual kingship system prior to the arrival of Brahmanism, Buddhism and Jainism in India. Balochi Caste Name. "[289], A hypothesis that caste amounts to race has been rejected by some scholars. Cassan further concludes that legal and social program initiatives are no longer India's primary constraint in further advancement of India's historically discriminated castes; further advancement are likely to come from improvements in the supply of quality schools in rural and urban India, along with India's economic growth. After formation of the Khalsa (1699), and especially during the reign of Ranjit Singh, Hindu Khatri families raised at least one son (usually the oldest) as an Amritdhari Sikh. [49], Arvind Sharma, a professor of comparative religion, notes that caste has been used synonymously to refer to both varna and jati but that "serious Indologists now observe considerable caution in this respect" because, while related, the concepts are considered to be distinct. Two rare temple donor records from warrior families of the 14th century claim to be Shudras. Press, 1984, 84–85, "Caste-based Discrimination in International Human Rights Law", p. 257, by David Keane. [46][47] Graham Chapman and others have reiterated the complexity, and they note that there are differences between theoretical constructs and the practical reality. [253], In Bengal, some Muslims refer to the social stratification within their society as qaum (or Quoms),[239] a term that is found among Muslims elsewhere in India, as well as in Pakistan and Afghanistan. In various linguistic areas, hundreds of castes had a gradation generally acknowledged by everyone. This approach brought Shiva's presence to everyone and at all times, without gender, class or caste discrimination. For context, the UN reported between 40 and 55 cases of violent acts per 10,000 people in developed countries in 2005. A hierarchical system wherein generally the Brahmins were at the head of the hierarchy, but this hierarchy was disputed in some cases. These acts prohibited the inter-generational and intra-generational transfer of land from land-owning castes to any non-agricultural castes, thereby preventing economic mobility of property and creating consequent caste barriers in India. Claude Markovits, a French historian of colonial India, writes that Hindu society in north and west India (Sindh), in late 18th century and much of 19th century, lacked a proper caste system, their religious identities were fluid (a combination of Saivism, Vaisnavism, Sikhism), and the Brahmins were not the widespread priestly group (but the Bawas were). [213][214] In 2020 the California Department of Fair Employment and Housing initiated a lawsuit against Cisco and two of its employees for alleged discrimination against an Indian engineer because he was from a lower caste than them. The term means different things to different Indians. Indian government has, in addition, vigorously pursued agricultural land ceiling laws which prohibit anyone from owning land greater than mandated limits. Regional Determinism India, Pakistan and Bangladesh as Inheritors of Empire", "The prehistory of Orientalism: Colonialism and the Textual Basis for Bartholomaus Ziegenbalg's Account of Hinduism", "Early Sanskritization. The first school focuses on the ideological factors which are claimed to drive the caste system and holds that caste is rooted in the four. This has led Cynthia Talbot, a professor of History and Asian Studies, to question whether varna was socially significant in the daily lives of this region. [97] As a result, there have been campaigns to include the Muslim untouchable and lower castes among the groups eligible for affirmative action in India under SC and STs provision act [234] and have been given additional reservation based on the Sachar Committee report. Brahmin are the spiritual leaders or “reflective ones”, like teachers, priests, philosophers and doctors. SINDHWARKIS – Sindhwarkis are those Bhaibands of Sindh who traded in the materials made in Sindh and then exported it. [1][152][153][154], The strict British class system may have influenced the British preoccupation with the Indian caste system as well as the British perception of pre-colonial Indian castes. ", Mahavira, the 24th tirthankara introduced radical reforms in the social structure. [249][250][251] Anti-caste activists like Ambedkar called the Arzal caste among Muslims as the equivalent of Hindu untouchables,[252] as did the British ethnographer Herbert Hope Risley. The Sikh panth is not caste based, still the Khatris played a major role in development of Sikhism as a gentle and inclusive faith. From the earliest days of Islam's arrival in South Asia, the Arab, Persian and Afghan Muslims have been part of the upper, noble caste. The decree introduced a formal division of Ashraf and Ajlaf in the Muslim society of India. These, writes Olivelle, are called "fallen people" and considered impure in the medieval Indian texts. The erstwhile dasas are renamed Shudras, probably to distinguish them from the new meaning of dasa as slave. [235] They found a significant increase in lower caste children in their odds of completing primary school. Gill. This narrative is about Sikhs who originally belonged to the province of Sindh (Pakistan) and are now in India. AMILS – The word Amil comes from amal which means to practice. Similarly Shikarpuris are people from Shikarpur. [72] Susan Bayly summarises that Manusmriti and other scriptures helped elevate Brahmins in the social hierarchy and these were a factor in the making of the varna system, but the ancient texts did not in some way "create the phenomenon of caste" in India. After India achieved independence, the policy of caste-based reservation of jobs was formalised with lists of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Google Scholar Sindhis don’t follow any caste system, but there are certain loosely defined ‘castes’ or ‘zaats’ that are distinct from each other as they have come to be associated with distinct cultural and behavioral characteristics. [6] Between 1860 and 1920, the British formulated the caste system into their system of governance, granting administrative jobs and senior appointments only to Christians and people belonging to certain castes. His model definition for caste included the following six characteristics:[29], The above Ghurye's model of caste thereafter attracted scholarly criticism[39][40] for relying on the census reports produced by the colonial government,[28][41] the "superior, inferior" racist theories of H. H. Risley,[42] and for fitting his definition to then prevalent orientalist perspectives on caste. [16] The jatis are complex social groups that lack universally applicable definition or characteristic, and have been more flexible and diverse than was previously often assumed. For example, some Britons believed Indians would shun train travel because tradition-bound South Asians were too caught up in caste and religion, and that they would not sit or stand in the same coaches out of concern for close proximity to a member of higher or lower or shunned caste. [229] In 1980, the commission's report affirmed the affirmative action practice under Indian law, whereby additional members of lower castes—the other backward classes—were given exclusive access to another 27 percent of government jobs and slots in public universities, in addition to the 23 percent already reserved for the Dalits and Tribals. Nikhil is a believer of Sanatan Dharma and vows to bring back the real history of India. [167], The British colonial government, for instance, enacted the Criminal Tribes Act of 1871. [143][a], While legal codes and state administration were emerging in India, with the rising power of the European powers, Dirks states that the late 18th-century British writings on India say little about caste system in India, and predominantly discuss territorial conquest, alliances, warfare and diplomacy in India. The chariot-maker (rathakara) and metal worker (karmara) enjoyed positions of importance and no stigma was attached to them. Indian surnames and family names are derived from a variety of systems and naming conventions. Many husbandmen and artisans practised a number of crafts. For example Hyderabadis are known because they lived in Hyderabad which was comparatively an advanced and prosperous city. [122] According to this hypothesis, the mass conversions occurred from the lower caste Hindus and Mahayana Buddhists who had become "corroded from within by the infiltration of Hindu beliefs and practices". to comprise 52% of the country's population by the Mandal Commission report of 1980, a figure which had shrunk to 41% by 2006 when the National Sample Survey Organisation's survey took place. This is a false terminology; castes rise and fall in the social scale, and old castes die out and new ones are formed, but the four great classes are stable. [262] In theory, Nesbitt states Sikh literature does not recognise caste hierarchy or differences. Caste or no caste, creed or no creed, any man, or class, or caste, or nation, or institution that bars the power of free thought and bars action of an individual is devilish, and must go down. However, the same study found that in 2000, the percentage of Dalit males never enrolled in a school was still more than twice the percentage of upper caste males never enrolled in schools. Communities teamed in different regions of India, into "collective classing" to mold the social stratification in order to maximise assets and protect themselves from loss. [9] From then on, the colonial administration began a policy of positive discrimination by reserving a certain percentage of government jobs for the lower castes. But like every other institution it has suffered from excrescences. [113] Richard Eaton, a professor of History, writes, "anyone could become warrior regardless of social origins, nor do the jati—another pillar of alleged traditional Indian society—appear as features of people's identity. Nor were jati the building blocks of society. CHHAPRUS – The word Chhapru comes from the word Chhappar meaning mountain. [180][182], Khushwant Singh a Sikh historian, and Tony Ballantyne a professor of History, state that these colonial-era laws helped create and erect barriers within land-owning and landless castes in northwest India. Efforts are being made to replace the term with "Masihi" (Messiah), which is preferred by the Christians citizens of Pakistan. Sharpe, 2003, Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development, Muslim rule between the 12th and 18th centuries, California Department of Fair Employment and Housing, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, International Institute for Population Sciences, Samuel, Origins of Yoga and Tantra (2008), Chapman, Religious vs. The colonial officials used the census-determined jatis to decide which group of people were qualified for which jobs in the colonial government, and people of which jatis were to be excluded as unreliable. Aspects of Caste in South India, Ceylon and North-West Pakistan. Sindhi Caste Name. But a recent authoritative survey revealed striking improvements in living standards of dalits in the last two decades. The state cabinet on Tuesday took the decision with the view to abolish caste system … The caste system has been criticised by many Indian social reformers. Marc Galanter, Competing Equalities: Law and the Backward Classes in India. [125] Conversions to Islam were rare, states MacLein, and conversions attested by historical evidence confirms that the few who did convert were Brahmin Hindus (theoretically, the upper caste). Patrick Olivelle, a professor of Sanskrit and Indian Religions and credited with modern translations of Vedic literature, Dharma-sutras and Dharma-sastras, states that ancient and medieval Indian texts do not support the ritual pollution, purity-impurity premise implicit in the Dumont theory. Television ownership was up from zero to 45 percent; cellphone ownership up from zero to 36 percent; two-wheeler ownership (of motorcycles, scooters, mopeds) up from zero to 12.3 percent; children eating yesterday's leftovers down from 95.9 percent to 16.2 percent ... Dalits running their own businesses up from 6 percent to 37 percent; and proportion working as agricultural labourers down from 46.1 percent to 20.5 percent. They completed a national survey of over 100,000 households for each of the four survey years between 1983 and 2000. [178], While the notion of hereditary criminals conformed to orientalist stereotypes and the prevailing racial theories during the colonial era, the social impact of its enforcement was profiling, division and isolation of many communities of Hindus as criminals-by-birth. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, The Trading World of the Tamil Merchant: Evolution of Merchant Capitalism in the Coromandel by Kanakalatha Mukund p.166, Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Early Medieval India and the making of the Indo-Islamic World by André Wink p.321. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 44 (2007): 109-16. This system is relentless and abominable by even the lowest standards of humanity. Punjabi Caste Name. [288] They write that casteism in India is presently "not apartheid. Shah, A. M. "Caste in the 21st Century: From System to Elements." [citation needed] He believed that the caste system originated in the practise of endogamy and that it spread through imitation by other groups. The lack of Brahman, priestly class and rigid caste system in Sindhi society found correlation with teaching of Guru Nanak which was based on equality on humanity among other things. They were the community of dry fruits and spice merchants of those days. [180][181] Colonial officials, for instance, enacted laws such as the Land Alienation Act in 1900 and Punjab Pre-Emption Act in 1913, listing castes that could legally own land and denying equivalent property rights to other census-determined castes. [81] Olivelle adds that the overwhelming focus in matters relating to purity/impurity in the Dharma-sastra texts concerns "individuals irrespective of their varna affiliation" and all four varnas could attain purity or impurity by the content of their character, ethical intent, actions, innocence or ignorance (acts by children), stipulations, and ritualistic behaviours. The roots of Islamic caste system in India can be traced to the 14th century decree called "Fatwa-i-Jahandari" of Ziauddin Barani who was the official cleric of the Tughlaqs. The Brahmins maintain their divinely ordained superiority and assert their right to draw service from the lower orders. The ancient caste system of India, which has resulted in the social and economic oppression of the Dalits, continues to play a dominant role in India. He proclaimed complete dissolution of all the four varnas and called it obsolete. Therefore, wherever they could mobilise resources, the Dalits of Punjab have tried to construct their own gurudwara and other local level institutions in order to attain a certain degree of cultural autonomy. [104], The Mahabharata, whose final version is estimated to have been completed by the end of the fourth century, discusses the varna system in section 12.181, presenting two models. "[243] Amidst the Hindu society, the Saint Thomas Christians of Kerala had inserted themselves within the Indian caste society by the observance of caste rules and were regarded by the Hindus as a caste occupying a high place within their caste hierarchy. Sindhishaan requested veteran researcher Shri Sahib Bijani to simplify and explain the various ‘types’ to the Sindh community. Based on the consultation the government decided that "the best way to provide the necessary protection against unlawful discrimination because of caste is by relying on emerging case law as developed by courts and tribunals". [68][69] The Purusha Sukta of the Rigveda and Manusmriti's comment on it, being the oft-cited texts. 33 of 1989", "SC/STs fail to break caste ceiling: No SC in 149 top government officers, 40 pc do menial jobs", "Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes population: Census 2001". Peter Masefield, in his review of caste in India, states that anyone could in principle perform any profession. In 1948, negative discrimination on the basis of caste was banned by law and further enshrined in the Indian constitution; however, the system continues to be practiced in parts of India. [160], The role of the British Raj on the caste system in India is controversial. On the other hand, much literature on the subject is marred by lack of precision about the use of the term. [107], Adi Purana, an 8th-century text of Jainism by Jinasena, is the first mention of varna and jati in Jain literature. [51], Sociologist Anne Waldrop observes that while outsiders view the term caste as a static phenomenon of stereotypical tradition-bound India, empirical facts suggest caste has been a radically changing feature. 113. Cham: Springer International Publishing. In this transitory phase, Brahmins together with scribes, ascetics and merchants who accepted Hindu social and spiritual codes, became the deferred-to-authority on Hindu texts, law and administration of Hindu matters. Regional Determinism (1993), M. N. Srinivas, Coorgs of South India (1952), https://books.google.co.in/books?id=7cvaAAAAMAAJ&q=suddo+havai+kammuna&dq=suddo+havai+kammuna&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjAsIP42MztAhWSbSsKHbNYBQoQ6AEwAXoECAQQAg, https://books.google.co.in/books?id=FGSZNEy3lQYC&pg=PA54&dq=Mahavira+caste+system&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjhpa3C7o7tAhUWwzgGHTTzBMQQ6AEwAHoECAUQAg#v=onepage&q=Mahavira%20caste%20system&f=false, https://books.google.co.in/books?id=3GryDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA71&dq=Mahavira+caste+system&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjhpa3C7o7tAhUWwzgGHTTzBMQQ6AEwAXoECAQQAg#v=onepage&q=Mahavira%20caste%20system&f=false, https://books.google.co.in/books?id=B4zDswEACAAJ&dq=uttaradhyayan+sutra&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiCrtr88I7tAhUUyzgGHYCQADAQ6AEwAHoECAQQAg, "Race, Caste and Tribe in Central India: the early origins of Indian anthropometry", "Law and Identity Manipulation: Evidence from Colonial Punjab", India – A Country Study, US Library of Congress, 1995, Chapter 5, Rural Poverty Report 2001 – The Challenge of Ending Rural Poverty, "Declining subcaste endogamy in India: the Hyderabad Kayasths, 1900–75", "The Dollar Brides – Indian girls marrying NRIs often escape to a hassle-free life", UN report slams India for caste discrimination, "Caste, Ethnicity and Exclusion in South Asia: The Role of Affirmative Action Policies in Building Inclusive Societies", "Crimes and Crime Rates by Type of Offense: 1980 to 2009", "The US isn't safe from the trauma of caste bias", "Silicon Valley Has a Caste Discrimination Problem", "California sues Cisco for alleged discrimination against employee because of caste", "California sues Cisco over discrimination against dalit employee", "UK decides against separate law to counter caste discrimination in Indian community", "Britain backs off anti-caste discrimination legislation", "Caste in Great Britain and equality law: a public consultation", "India: (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989; No. In 2001, the literacy rates in India's lowest castes was 55 percent, compared to a national average of 63 percent. [277][278], In a 2011 study, Aiyar too notes that such qualitative theories of economic exploitation and consequent land redistribution within India between 1950 and 1990 had no effect on the quality of life and poverty reduction. [195], In the round table conference held on August 1932, upon the request of Ambedkar, the then Prime Minister of Britain, Ramsay MacDonald made a Communal Award which awarded a provision for separate representation for the Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, Anglo-Indians, Europeans and Dalits. [70] Counter to these textual classifications, many revered Hindu texts and doctrines question and disagree with this system of social classification. [88], In an early Upanishad, Shudra is referred to as Pūşan or nourisher, suggesting that Shudras were the tillers of the soil. The childhood vaccination levels in India's lowest castes was 40 percent in 2001, compared to a national average of 44 percent. There are never more or less than four and for over 2,000 years their order of precedence has not altered. [28], Ghurye offered what he thought was a definition that could be applied across India, although he acknowledged that there were regional variations on the general theme. Later Vedic texts ridicule some professions, but the concept of untouchability is not found in them. [275][non-primary source needed], Many political parties in India have indulged in caste-based votebank politics. Using the example of the northwest of the subcontinent, Buddha points out that aryas could become dasas and vice versa. Moreover, only 1.67% of Dalit females were college graduates compared to 9.09% of upper caste females. Liberty of thought and action, asserted Vivekananda, is the only condition of life, of growth and of well-being. State Intervention in Religion. Indian societal and family relationships are changing because of female literacy and education, women at work, urbanisation, the need for two-income families, and global influences through television. There was a great diversity in these rules, and lower castes generally accepted food from upper castes. [18], Jati, meaning birth,[19] is mentioned much less often in ancient texts, where it is clearly distinguished from varna. [52], Sociologists such as M. N. Srinivas and Damle have debated the question of rigidity in caste and believe that there is considerable flexibility and mobility in the caste hierarchies.[53][54]. [281][203][282] Critics of the accusations point to substantial improvements in the position of Dalits in post-independence India, consequent to the strict implementation of the rights and privileges enshrined in the Constitution of India, as implemented by the Protection of Civil rights Act, 1955. In all jobs classified as Group C positions, the percentage of jobs held by lowest caste people is about the same as their demographic population distribution. According to the Sindhis interviewed, marriage among them, is a ... of the Sindhi community are so entangled in this infectious disease that Olivelle writes in his review of post-Vedic Sutra and Shastra texts, "we see no instance when a term of pure/impure is used with reference to a group of individuals or a varna or caste". The poverty level in India's lowest castes dropped from 49 percent to 39 percent between 1995 and 2005, compared to a national average change from 35 to 27 percent. [175][176][177] This practice became controversial, did not enjoy the support of all British colonial officials, and in a few cases this decades-long practice was reversed at the start of the 20th century with the proclamation that people "could not be incarcerated indefinitely on the presumption of [inherited] bad character". Chief Khalsa Diwan sent preachers to number of places including to Sindh during early 20th century for the propagation of Sikh principles based on Gurbani. "[116] In Tamil Nadu the Vellalar were during ancient and medieval period the elite caste who were major patrons of literature. You can also add your surname to this list if it is not listed below. They strictly married in their own community. [194], Social unrest during 1920s led to a change in this policy. [66], The varnas originated in Vedic society (c. 1500–500 BCE). Anand A. Yang, Bazaar India: Markets, Society, and the Colonial State in Bihar. BHATIAS – Bhatias are descendants of Shri Krishna. Some of their sub-castes are Gajria, Kajria, Parmal etc. [247] There is some controversy[248] if these characteristics make them social groups or castes of Islam. [230], The reservation system has led to widespread protests, such as the 2006 Indian anti-reservation protests, with many complaining of reverse discrimination against the Forward Castes (the castes that do not qualify for the reservation). The Mahabharata then declares, "There is no distinction of varnas. Some Bhagnaris were also wine merchants. Since 1950, the country has enacted many laws and social initiatives to protect and improve the socioeconomic conditions of its lower caste population. [79][80], The post-Vedic texts, particularly Manusmriti mentions outcastes and suggests that they be ostracised. Many dasas were however in a servile position, giving rise to the eventual meaning of dasa as servant or slave. The concept of kulas was broadly similar. Kshatriyas are nobles or warriors; they are those who protect society. Any number of new jatis can be added depending on need, such as tribes, sects, denominations, religious or linguistic minorities and nationalities. [74] Susan Bayly, on the other hand, states that jati system emerged because it offered a source of advantage in an era of pre-Independence poverty, lack of institutional human rights, volatile political environment, and economic insecurity. They head many Sindhi Tikanas and Durbars. [265], There has been criticism of the caste system from both within and outside of India. The Indian caste system carries out inter-caste differentiation based on financial status and standard of living of the members. It divides Hindus into four hierarchical groups; Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras, the lowest class. They report a striking presence of exogamous marriages across caste lines over time, particularly since the 1970s. [1][2][3][4] It is today the basis of affirmative action programmes in India. Originally, Paleed/Paleet qaum included people running or working at brothels, prostitution service providers or professional courtesan/dancers (Tawaif) and musicians. [257] Malik states that the lack of religious sanction makes qaum a quasi-caste, and something that is found in Islam outside South Asia. [209][210][page needed] The UN report claimed 1.33 cases of violent acts per 10,000 Dalit people. It is likely that the varna system, while being a part of the Brahmanical ideology, was not practically operative in the society. The Vedic tribes regarded themselves as arya (the noble ones) and the rival tribes were called dasa, dasyu and pani. Historically speaking, the alliance and the open status group, whether war band or religious sect, dominated medieval and early modern Indian history in a way descent and caste did not. The fastest increase in school attendance by Dalit community children occurred during the recent periods of India's economic growth. The only mention of impurity in the Shastra texts from the 1st millennium is about people who commit grievous sins and thereby fall out of their varna. [citation needed] In his criticism Phule added, "Brahmins cannot claim superior status because of caste, because they hardly bothered with these when wining and dining with Europeans. Sindhis participate in this mindset with pride, asking each other with gleeful curiosity: what is your caste? When V. P. Singh's administration tried to implement the recommendations of the Mandal Commission in 1990, massive protests were held in the country. Parties such as Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), the Samajwadi Party and the Janata Dal claim that they are representing the backward castes, and rely on OBC support, often in alliance with Dalit and Muslim support, to win elections.