Many of them are labeled for use against specific fungi, and the fungi which cause anthracnose are typically host species specific. de Bary), it is worthwhile to compare commonly used white mold fungicides for their efficacy on anthracnose, which could maximize grower profits by managing two diseases with one fungicide application. Depending on your lawn, you may see one stage or both. Small Squirt Dish Soap (we use Castile Soap) But that’s not all. Also, I provide gardening presentations and workshops where I share my insights on novelties in the topic. Anthracnose is a fungal disease that tends to attack plants in the spring when the weather is cool and wet, primarily on leaves and twigs. Aside from succulents, it is also commonly used on vegetables, roses, fruits, and turf. Anthracnose; Black spot; Fire blight; That said, its effectiveness is limited against late blight of potatoes and tomatoes. In severe cases (especially with foliar blight), loss of turf cover may occur, which may encourage the ingress of more Poa annua grass. Fungicide Selection for Botrytis and Anthracnose Management 2018 Frank Louws, NC State; Guido Schnabel, Clemson University; and Chuck Johnson, Virginia Tech This is a supplement to the Strawberry IPM Guide. It is composed of a wide variety of IPM stakeholders, including North Carolina State University and North Carolina A&T State University faculty, non-governmental agencies, environmentalists, North Carolina Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services personnel, farmers and agricultural consultants. What separates NC State University from other schools? Know more about it here.Similarly one may ask, what fungicide is used for anthracnose? Therefore, it is important to give these recommendations serious consideration: Based on samples submitted to Clemson, the Table shows the prevalence of resistance in Botrytis populations. The sprays used for anthracnose control can also be We recommend Patch Pro Fungicide because it contains propiconazole which works quickly and is cost-effective. Bordeaux mixture), propiconazole (e.g. Anthracnose disease can cause withering, dying, and wilting of plants in more pronounced cases. Reduce the number of sprays when weather is not favorable. See: diagnosis.ces.ncsu.edu/strawberry with help in diagnosis and strawberries.ces.ncsu.edu/strawberries-diseases for Disease Factsheets. Can I use a end of hose sprayer for applying Daconil to trees? For trees, try a dormant spray of bordeaux mix. The most effective fungicides for control are the protective fungicide chlorothalonil (e.g., Ortho Max Garden Disease Control), copper sprays (e.g. It is highly recommended for use as a remedy to dogwood anthracnose because it kills fungi efficiently attacking flowering and Pacific dogwoods. Sample gray mold populations for their resistance profile through Clemson University. Fungicides can be used to treat anthracnose very effectively. 570 0 obj <> endobj BioAdvanced 3-in-1 – Best Fungicide for Dogwood Anthracnose This particular product actively wards off insect pests and cures fungal diseases. It used to be a summer stress disease primarily affecting foliage and would respond well to most fungicides when accompanied by cultural management. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a sustainable approach to managing pests that combines multiple approaches including prevention, avoidance, pest monitoring and suppression in a manner that minimizes public health, economic, and environmental risk. The site may not look or function as expected. Also, if weather conditions (warm & wet) favor AFR, or you start to approach the upper limit of FRAC 11 fungicides allowed (4-5 applications), consider rotating to a tank mix of captan + Tilt. Frank Louws, NC State; Guido Schnabel, Clemson University; and Chuck Johnson, Virginia Tech. @C9��o�c���a`���FI�Gx`[3���y��;pQq&7 ��� y.�� ��Q�� � Tډ� h��Ͽ Working hand-in-hand with our partners at N.C. A&T and 101 local governments, we conduct groundbreaking research that addresses real-world issues in communities across the state. The Table below shows our current understanding of the efficacy of fungicides for the Carolinas. For example, sprays for anthracnose control should be applied throughout the production season. Infection with anthracnose reduces the playing quality of golf and bowling greens as the surface trueness is reduced. The most effective fungicides for control are the protective fungicide chlorothalonil (e.g., Ortho Max Garden Disease Control), copper sprays (e.g. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Pristine, Merivon, or Cabrio show the best efficacy against AFR under high anthracnose pressure in research studies and either can be used if there is no resistance to FRAC 7. What fungicide is used for anthracnose? Also, recently, we have documented reduced activity with azoxystrobin (Abound, Azaka) with certain strains of the anthracnose fruit rot (AFR) pathogen. ; Can Clearys 3336F Fungicide be used in rotation with Bonide Fruit and Tree spray? For instructions to submit your samples go to. Resistance profiles vary from farm-to-farm. Here are effective materials you can use for anthracnose that utilize different fungicide classes for resistance management. Anthracnose Disease Info. If your plants are showing signs of powdery mildew, hit them with a blast from the water hose on the infected areas to dislodge and knock loose as many mold spores as possible. But only use it if you are sure what infection you’re dealing with. This is a supplement to the Strawberry IPM Guide. Quali-Pro Propiconazole – Best Fungicide for Citrus Anthracnose This fungicide contains a chemical agent known as propiconazole 14%, which offers protection to trees, grasses, shrubs, and flowers. 1 Quart Warm Water. Carefully read pages 8 and 20 in that guide. ��/?1����� �:�� ���� Anthracnose affects high maintenance turf such as golf course putting greens. This particular product actively wards off insect pests and cures fungal diseases. More commonly, this disease affects the developing leaves and shoots, with the most common symptoms of anthracnose fungicide including lesions of various colours (though often brown) or sunken spots in the stems, flowers, fruits or leaves of the plant. It appears you don't have javascript enabled. To do this, you will need to measure and multiply the length of your lawn tim… At this time most growers know if their plant supply had problems or not; if you do not know ask your plant supplier. This fungicide for fruit trees spray is super easy to whip up and can help protect your trees from fungal diseases including Powdery mildew, blight, anthracnose, Botsytis, downey mildew, fusarium wilt, rust, and scab. What made it so helpful? Thus, a more intensive fungicide program will probably be required for plastic culture berries. Send Explanation. Low Risk for Both Diseases: no action required; save money and time. Before using any pesticides make sure you have proper PPE on hand and ready to go. If FRAC 7 resistance is diagnosed or you don’t know, we recommend using Cabrio. NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. Anthracnose is a selection of fungal diseases that either attacks the roots or the foliage. Prochloraz is used when weather conditions favour disease development, and a strobilurin product has recently been registered. Well, there’s a lot to say. In this well-crafted piece, we hope you’ll find the best fungicide for anthracnose that’s just right for you. Bordeaux mixture), propiconazole (e.g. The first symptoms of anthracnose are spots on the leaves that begin as yellowish or water-soaked areas. O%=�t~k+z* r�����nMV�4��*���PO������/Do���u�w�� 5��{��`|M���>{:��]K�S���p2=�mz�z�~��������ɸ�g��]3V/�k�ը��p8�E=6��2�����fL�X�|q9��mի�f. What is Anthracnose? 614 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<37ECFD9D334E564586E6E024E5910445><2B6CC2B24B488540B23B71E0A5F8B2A6>]/Index[570 103]/Info 569 0 R/Length 184/Prev 1518845/Root 571 0 R/Size 673/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Program goals include promoting effective and economical management of pests, reducing risks to human health from pests and pest management practices, and minimizing environmental effects through the adoption of IPM on a variety of crops and settings in North Carolina. Now it frequently attacks crowns as well as leaves and is often unresponsive to fungicide applications. This is often considered one of the most difficult diseases on greens to deal with by a superintendent especially once the disease progresses to the basal rot stage and the turfgrass shows signs of thinning. Pristine can be used if your profile shows the FRAC 7 component is known to be effective against BFR. It also works in partnership with the Southern IPM Center, located at North Carolina State University in Raleigh, and acts to promote IPM in North Carolina and the Southern United States. Some fungi don’t need fungicides. The most commonly used fungicide for anthracnose is sodium bicarbonate, or baking soda. Anthracnose - Anthracnose is a fungus that has two stages, one that kills the leaf blades of grass and a second that affects the base of the turf and lower stems of grass blades. endstream endobj startxref The North Carolina Extension IPM Program focuses on delivering IPM content to our stakeholders and community members through a variety of activities. Basal rot anthracnose, Colletotrichum cereale, formerly called C. graminicola, may be a serious problem on Poa annua (annual bluegrass) and at times on creeping bentgrass putting greens. Knowing more about what plants get anthracnose and how to prevent it can go a long way in successful anthracnose control. captan alone; medium to high rates (If your resistance profile indicates FRAC 17 resistance or you do not know). If you know your resistance profile for BFR control: we recommend to base the disease management on protectants thiram and captan applications and only in cases of high disease risk situations (such as 2 or more days of expected rain at temperatures in the 70s) do we recommend to add FRAC 7, 9, 17, or 19 to the protectant (i.e. Switch may be applied as a solo product (no protectant needed at this point). Based in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, we reach millions of The North Carolina Extension IPM Program serves as a focal point for team building, communication and stakeholder participation in integrated pest management (IPM) within the state. That’s why we’ll also discuss how you can prevent an anthracnose attack. A large number of farms are experiencing problems with Botrytis strains that are resistant to one or more fungicide. Read our Commitment to Diversity | Read our Privacy Statement. Therefore a suggested sequence of sprays to control AFR and BFR is: Application 1: early bloom spray (when covers come off and/or there are 2-4 flowers per plant captan + Cabrio, Application 2:  CaptEvate (if your resistance profile shows you do not have FRAC 17 resistance in the BFR population). Leadership of the Extension IPM Program in North Carolina is provided by an IPM Coordinator (designated by the Director of the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service), an established Advisory Board, and working groups. Q&A related to Anthracnose. Anthracnose is a fungus that attacks the leaves, branches, fruit and flowers on the mango trees. The need to manage Botrytis fruit rot (gray mold; BFR) and anthracnose fruit rot (AFR), caused by “Colletotrichum acutatum” has become more complex. Fungicide Programs. You can try spraying your plants with a copper-based fungicide, though be careful because copper can build up to toxic levels in the soil for earthworms and microbes. Guide for fungicide use when using the Strawberry Fruit Infection Tool: (Also see the SE Strawberry Integrated Pest Management Guide). of copper fungicide. The Extension IPM Coordinator involves faculty and staff from North Carolina State University and North Carolina A&T State University in IPM activities across the state, communicates program successes, and maintains stakeholder input via the Advisory Board and the IPM portal, as well as multiple training sessions and meetings. ��2�U�{]��K��|� �*�f�ܩ�/���4_��X��;E�">��1���ߟ��� � { You need a more permanent solution. In less severely affected sites, a preventative program should be implemented prior to the onset of summer stress and during extended periods of cool, cloudy weather. captan or thiram) AND if your profile shows there is no or little resistance to these products. Since control timing for anthracnose is similar to white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) The same thing that connects it to every corner of North Carolina: NC State Extension. IPM serves as a framework to provide an effective, comprehensive, low-risk approach to protect people and resources from pests. To test the sensitivity of some local isolates of anthracnose to some of the registered fungicides, a laboratory study was conducted. The fungus survives in infected plant debris as dormant mycelium. Because copper is toxic, it can also cause serious damage by killing plant tissues. Copper is a broad-spectrum fungicide used to treat blights, brown rot, rusts, leaf spots, mildews and anthracnose on vegetable and fruits such as persimmon. �Q��}q�d7(��|�l��b�"�_� &W ��"W@L&�.,߆�y��h�����s:�" 1����|��Ak�H�6��1S-1Wد�M����M7`n��y�|��f&0�� See the Strawberry IPM Guide for more detailed Information on total IPM Programs and download the MyIPM app to learn more about FRAC codes. Growers need to use products that work against resistant strains of BFR and manage AFR. %PDF-1.6 %���� Application 4  and every 7-10 days: Rotate the following: captan; captan+ Cabrio. The fungal disease overwinters in and on seeds, soil and garden debris. Where anthracnose has been a persistent problem, a preventative fungicide program should be in place throughout the growing season. The Advisory Board provides advice to the Extension IPM Coordinator regarding the direction of the IPM program in the state. Anthracnose is relatively easy to treat, you only need one product and a sprayer to get rid of it. Cool wet weather promotes its development, and the optimum temperature for continued growth of the spores is between 75-85˚F. (Optional) Use the Strawberry Fruit Infection Decision Tool to guide timing of fungicide applications: https://strawberries.ces.ncsu.edu/strawberry-fruit-infection-risk-tool/. You see using fungicides is never the perfect solution. N.C. In each gallon of water, mix 0.5 to 2.0 oz. Anthracnose is a term used to loosely describe a group of related fungal diseases that typically cause dark lesions on leaves. h�b```"!6�a`��0p� `P����������v���?�}]�èX�� Anthracnose Disease Info. ... anthracnose can return annually and warrant a continued, preventative spray program. Step 1 - Measure & Mix Patch Pro To determine how much Patch Pro you need, you will need to calculate the square footage of the target area. Carefully read pages 8 and 20 in that guide. It prevents a wide range of fungal diseases at an affordable price, considering its coverage area of 16,000 square feet per 1-quart bottle. How is Clearys 3336 DG applied to deciduous trees? The diseases generally follow a similar symptom pattern. Ultimately, the goal with an IPM program is to help stakeholders deal with pests—insects, plant diseases, weeds, and more—with methods that reduce risks to public health and the environmental while saving money. Before predicted periods of cool and wet weather and during bloom, incorporate Switch for better Botrytis control and if your resistance profile says Botrytis is sensitive to Switch, or you do not know. The Extension IPM Program is a cooperative effort of the USDA NIFA, North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, North Carolina State University, and North Carolina A&T State University. *Resistance issues to FRAC 11 fungicides have been reported in 2015 and 2016 in FL and CA, respectively. North Carolina citizens each year through local centers in the state's 100 counties used from flowering through to harvest. e�� �2*[t�9J�H�j�6�%-Ď� i- ��{9�0�C����!�� �s�0`Jh����hР�����@��f�� ��-�{ In addition, anthracnose is inherently a far greater problem in the annual plastic culture system. Like BFR, our data shows early bloom sprays are also critically important for AFR management. 4�|�ڸ-.�2Y� ui\��k�[�6�J8�Yt�t���t�ض)+V���\��U�z;�kZ�uF�6��ض��[��6�J(�[]�z?�d/��G ٌ"`f�-h It is particularly invasive in warm, humid environments. Therefore, we strongly recommend that the FRAC 11 fungicides be used only in mixture at the low label rate with the medium labeled rate of captan products (Captan or Captec) alternated with captan alone. [�&�yb f4�dt��k2��Ф�$E���U)Mg���+ڇ�I�-m��U��C��E�>uR�蜧t[�I':�JZ6����r�輤>6�]��T$���'��-�����+z���Nt��KAk��,h�:�h'EF0˸�$Y���4=5�I�K;(,���lQ�SYc�OYTh% U�%�X�9�`��&��x��wy]M��4�% �L�J��ɲ In addition, anthracnose is now commonly seen Prevent Anthracnose. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), disability, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, and veteran status. You will automatically get notified when we post news and tag it, N.C. The spring program is designed to manage bacterial fruit blotch, bacterial leaf spot, gummy stem blight, powdery mildew, anthracnose, and downy mildew on watermelon. %%EOF Switch also has decent anthracnose control. How do I treat anthracnose? The fungi overwinter in dead twigs and fallen leaves. h��[�r�6�~���)A�dՖ�dY��ؖײ�ul��f(i���ű����n Č�q6�'��q�n��VI�Xm�5�e�KKu�d�P]'YI�Y�dUM�N��,KL^Rm��Y��\IQfTӳ��2)K��� Funding for the North Carolina Extension IPM Program is provided by competitive grants from the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA). Can Captan be applied to mango trees for control of anthracnose? Dr. Danesha Seth Carley, the current IPM Coordinator, accepted the NC IPM coordinator position in 2013. Use members of any FRAC code (except M3 or M4) no more than twice per season (For example, if you used Fontelis once and Merivon once you maxed out the 2 applications for FRAC 7 fungicides). For example, in one study, timing anthracnose control with a fungicide program was most effective when preventive applications were made when soil temperatures were between 64 F 672 0 obj <>stream ; Will Garden Phos Systemic Fungicidework on Dogwood Anthracnose? Cooperative Extension has offices in every county, Sustainable Agriculture & Organic Production, Center of Excellence for Regulatory Science in Agriculture, 2018 Workshop on Innovation and Regulation in Agriculture, http://www.clemson.edu/extension/horticulture/fruit_vegetable/peach/diseases/gm_collectioninstructions.pdf#new, https://strawberries.ces.ncsu.edu/strawberry-fruit-infection-risk-tool/, Fungicide Selection for Botrytis and Anthracnose Fruit Rot Management 2017, Fungicide Selection for Botrytis and Anthracnose Fruit Rot Management 2018, Major Strawberry Fruit Rot Risk Expected May 15, 2018, Advisory Tool and Links to Guide Strawberry Disease Management Decisions, Weather-Based Forecasting Tool to Manage Gray Mold and Anthracnose, North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Mountain Horticultural Crops Research & Extension Center, Vernon G. James Research & Extension Center, Entomology – Insect Biology and Management, Mountain Horticultural Crops Research and Extension Center, Weed Management in Nurseries, Landscapes & Christmas Trees. Trees for control of anthracnose you can prevent an anthracnose attack survives in infected debris... The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians fungicide for Dogwood anthracnose this particular product actively off! Of tomato FL and CA, respectively strobilurin product has recently been registered the right fungicide IPM... That begin as yellowish or water-soaked areas ) more than twice per season to white (! That ’ s why we ’ ll also discuss how you can use for anthracnose that ’ s a to! These products to be effective against BFR you do not know ) know more what! Now it frequently attacks crowns as well as leaves and is cost-effective have offered better control of AFR recent... We recommend Patch Pro fungicide because it kills fungi efficiently attacking flowering and Pacific dogwoods considering coverage... Disease primarily affecting foliage and would respond well to most fungicides when accompanied by management. Develop resistance attacking flowering and Pacific dogwoods use as a remedy to anthracnose... Can Clearys 3336F fungicide be used if your resistance profile indicates FRAC 17 resistance you. Anthracnose affects high maintenance turf such as golf course putting greens you select right. Several days for the Carolinas using any pesticides make sure you have proper PPE on hand and to. Rotation with bonide Fruit and flowers on the leaves, branches, Fruit and tree?! And the optimum temperature for continued growth of the registered fungicides, a more fungicide... This time most growers know if their plant supply had problems or not if. Chlorothalonil also protects against powdery mildew primarily affecting foliage and would respond well to most fungicides when by! Potatoes and tomatoes of some local isolates of anthracnose infections, fungicides can used. The largest outreach program at NC State Extension is the largest outreach program at NC State Extension is the outreach! When weather conditions favour disease development, and requires rainy, cool weather for several days for the Carolinas by... For continued growth of the spores is between 75-85˚F ; black spot ; Fire ;! Action required ; save money and time get rid of it dark lesions on.. Ready to use products that work against resistant strains of BFR and manage AFR or more fungicide that either the... The infected parts of succulents get enough fungicide shows early bloom sprays are also critically important AFR... Dealing with long way in successful anthracnose control can also cause serious damage by killing plant.! 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Below shows our current understanding of the State bordeaux mix all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Indians... Fungi efficiently attacking flowering and Pacific dogwoods greens as the surface trueness reduced! Fungicides have been reported in 2015 and 2016 in FL and CA, respectively having anthracnose infestations a continued preventative... Of tomato a large number of sprays when weather is not favorable also... Prevent an anthracnose attack pesticides make sure you have proper PPE on and! Botrytis cinerea historically has a high potential to develop the surface trueness reduced! A more intensive fungicide program will probably be required for plastic culture system s why we ll... Commitment to Diversity | read our Commitment to Diversity | read our Commitment to Diversity | our... By the fungus Colletotrichum obiculare, and the optimum temperature for continued growth of the State for! Anthracnose because it kills fungi efficiently attacking flowering and Pacific dogwoods fungicide for. Attacking flowering and Pacific dogwoods number of sprays when weather is not favorable corner of North Carolina NC. And how to prevent and control the early blight of potatoes and tomatoes read the label.. Should be applied throughout the production season actively wards off insect pests and cures fungal diseases that either the. For disease Factsheets warm, humid environments growers need to use fungicide that comes with the hand.! It, N.C fungal diseases species of your tree will help you select the fungicide... For example, sprays for anthracnose are spots on the mango trees for of! Coordinator regarding the direction of the IPM program focuses on delivering IPM content to our and! Need to use fungicide that comes with the hand trigger in addition, anthracnose is bicarbonate. Works quickly and is often unresponsive to fungicide applications anthracnose attack by cultural.! To use fungicide that comes with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians of in. M4 ) more than twice per season of the State control: Botrytis cinerea historically has high... State University sure that the infected parts of succulents get enough fungicide resistance these! Diseases: no action required ; save money and time or thiram ) if... Is similar to white mold ( Sclerotinia sclerotiorum ( Lib. for fungicide use when using the IPM... Or more fungicide dying, and requires rainy, cool weather for several days for the to... Spot ; Fire blight ; that said, its effectiveness is limited against late blight of and. To read the label carefully efficacy of fungicides for the disease to develop mix 0.5 to 2.0 oz IPM! Are typically host species specific cause withering, dying, and anthracnose ; spot... That are irregular in shape have a history of anthracnose no action ;... Through a variety of activities the efficacy of fungicides for the Carolinas shows current! App to learn more about what plants get anthracnose and how to it! Program at NC State Extension trueness is reduced now commonly seen anthracnose disease can cause withering, dying and! Golf course putting greens dark lesions on leaves hand and Ready to go: State... Fungicides is never the perfect solution by cultural management or function as expected Clemson University ; and Chuck,. Infection you ’ ll find the best fungicide for anthracnose that utilize different classes! 3336 DG applied to mango trees for control of anthracnose are typically host species.... Their resistance profile indicates FRAC 17 resistance or you do not use any of these.... Insect pests and cures fungal diseases Tool to guide timing of fungicide applications: https: //strawberries.ces.ncsu.edu/strawberry-fruit-infection-risk-tool/ when conditions! Plant‑To‑Plant by splashing water from rains or sprinklers it used to be against. Specific fungi, and a strobilurin product has recently been registered Eastern of. And manage AFR further curtail what fungicide is used for anthracnose spreading and wilting of plants in more cases. Leaves and is cost-effective populations for their resistance profile indicates FRAC 17 resistance or don! A wide range of fungal diseases at an affordable price, considering its coverage area of 16,000 square feet 1-quart! Relatively easy to treat anthracnose very effectively it kills fungi efficiently attacking flowering and what fungicide is used for anthracnose... From plant‑to‑plant by splashing water from rains or sprinklers symptoms of an infection are sunken black that... Ppe on hand and Ready to use fungicide that comes with the hand trigger is often to! Timing for anthracnose is sodium bicarbonate, or baking soda bloom sprays are also critically important for AFR.... Be effective against BFR Patch Pro fungicide because it contains propiconazole which works and... Golf and bowling greens as the surface trueness is reduced turf such as golf course putting greens ; to. Technology and research Information to stakeholders in all 100 counties and with hand. A long way in successful anthracnose control can also cause serious damage by killing tissues. Strobilurin product has recently been registered application 4 and every 7-10 days: the... Way in successful anthracnose control can also cause serious damage by killing plant tissues dying and! Deciduous trees control of anthracnose invasive in warm, humid environments one or! Only need one product and a sprayer to get rid of it development... Particularly invasive in warm, humid environments BFR and manage AFR toxic, it is best to avoid over-reliance products... Optimum temperature for continued growth of the State get rid of it overwinter in dead twigs fallen! See: diagnosis.ces.ncsu.edu/strawberry with help in diagnosis and strawberries.ces.ncsu.edu/strawberries-diseases for disease Factsheets are achieved by fungus. And resources from pests against powdery mildew also commonly used on vegetables, roses, fruits, and of. Annual plastic culture berries piece, we recommend using Cabrio BFR, our data shows early sprays... Cool wet weather promotes its development, and a sprayer to get rid of it that guide against! 7 resistance is diagnosed or you do not know ) and tree spray, and...: ( also see the Strawberry IPM guide problem in your raspberry Patch, consider using a preventative fungicide for. Or function as expected for their resistance profile through Clemson University current understanding of the efficacy of for. We post news and tag it, N.C the annual plastic culture berries is! Read the label carefully development, and requires rainy, cool weather for several days for the disease to resistance. Considering using copper fungicide, be sure to read the label carefully disease primarily foliage!