71 0 obj /C /SC118793 >> /Pg 2 0 R >> /ActualText (�� �) /P 23 0 R endobj /ModDate (D:20070615152411Z00'00') /ActualText (�� �) endobj /P 62 0 R killermiss killermiss Computer performance metrics include availability, response time, channel capacity, latency, completion time, throughput, scalability, path length and speed up. endobj >> /Pg 2 0 R Performance Metrics CS 154: Computer Architecture Lecture #3 Winter 2020 Ziad Matni, Ph.D. Dept. •Piazza account? endobj killermiss killermiss Computer performance metrics include availability, response time, channel capacity, latency, completion time, throughput, scalability, path length and speed up. 44 0 obj 31 0 obj Add your answer and earn points. /K [32] << << /P 85 0 R /D [2 0 R /XYZ 48 751 null] endobj >> /D [2 0 R /XYZ 48 679 null] 7 Instruction Performance The previous performance equations did not include any reference to the number of instructions needed for the program. 82 0 obj •Gradescope account? /C /SC118793 Administrative •Lab 01 –how did Friday go? >> Previous Lecture •CPU Evolution •What is Computer Architecture? /C /SC118793 /S /Span /C /SC118793 v Pitfalls of using execution time as performance metric. Metrics that Measure Performance Raw speed: peak performance (never attained) Execution time: time to execute one program from beginning to end • the “performance bottom line” • wall clock time, response time • Unix time function: 13.7u 23.6s 18:27 3% Throughput: total amount of … of Computer Science, UCSB. >> International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA) 55: 103: 6. International Conference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems (ASPLOS) 55: 88: 7. >> /P 56 0 R Question: What Is Performance Metrics ? >> << What is performance metrics in computer architecture? A Case for Computer Architecture Performance Metrics that Reflect Process Variability Bogdan F. Romanescu, Michael E. Bauer, Daniel J. Sorin, and Sule Ozev {bfr2, meb26, sorin, sule}@ee.duke.edu Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Duke University Duke University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Technical Report #2007-2, May 2007 . /ActualText (�� �) << 1/13/20 Matni, CS154, Wi20 2. /P 43 0 R /P 56 0 R << /Pg 2 0 R endobj /Pg 2 0 R In-order Datapath (understand, ECE 250) (built, ECE 350) Chip Multiprocessors (understand, experiment ECE552) ECE 552 / CPS 550 7 ECE 552 Executive Summary. •Define Performance = 1/Execution Time •“X is ntime faster than Y”. What is Performance? Performance = (1 / Execution time) And, (Performance of A / Performance of B) = (Execution Time of B / Execution Time of A) >> The objectives of this module are to identify and evaluate the performance metrics for a processor and also discuss the CPU performance equation. << 33 0 obj Follow. The demand for the increasingly powerful computer systems has generated sufficient revenue to fuel the development of the next round of technology while providing profits for the companies leading the charge. 98 0 obj Which laptop would you say is better, and why? /K [54] /C /SC118793 << 8 0 obj The case of instruction set architecture can be used to illustrate the balance of these competing factors. ... about the computer's architecture. Computer Architecture Lectures on Performance Metrics . /C /SC118793 << /D [2 0 R /XYZ 84 51 null] /C /SC118793 /S /Span endobj One common measure is processor speed. endobj /S /Span /P 56 0 R /Pg 2 0 R 1 See answer shubhamrajr9476 is waiting for your help. However, since the compiler clearly generated instructions to execute, and the computer had to execute the instructions to run the program, the execution time must depend on the number of instructions in a program. << /Pg 2 0 R 51 0 obj The question which architecture yields the best performance is particularly important for high-performance computing where an expensive system is purchased for a few or even only one application. /S /Span << Gray-scale computer graphics model. << /S /Span /P 43 0 R /K [19] New questions in Social Sciences. Information Technology University of the Punjab, Lahore, When the client requests the undo command.docx, There is a Interface of MediaPlayer with concrete class AudioPlayer.docx, Information Technology University of the Punjab, Lahore • COMPUTER S 123, [Peter_Watson]_Ideas_A_History_of_Thought_and_Inv(BookZZ.org), kl_015.03_CSSE_en_student_guide_v.1.2.1_wm.pdf, Pakistan_ A Modern History ( PDFDrive.com ).pdf, Microsoft Windows Server Core Management.pdf, Information Technology University of the Punjab, Lahore • IT AUD 302, Information Technology University of the Punjab, Lahore • COMPUTER S 712, Information Technology University of the Punjab, Lahore • CS 001, Information Technology University of the Punjab, Lahore • IS MISC, Information Technology University of the Punjab, Lahore • PSYCHOLOGY 441189. /P 43 0 R /S /Span /Pg 2 0 R /K [47] In general, the metrics are related to speed, accuracy, reliability and availability of services. /Pg 2 0 R 5 years ago | 43 views. /S /Figure << In computing, performance per watt is a measure of the energy efficiency of a particular computer architecture or computer hardware.Literally, it measures the rate of computation that can be delivered by a computer for every watt of power consumed. /D [2 0 R /XYZ 84 51 null] >> Which computer is faster for this program? /P 56 0 R /S /Span This also includes: Operating … >> /D [2 0 R /XYZ 348 404 null] /Pg 2 0 R endobj /S /Span endobj Overview ¨Announcement ¤Aug. /D [2 0 R /XYZ 48 208 null] endobj 42 0 obj << >> /P 57 0 R endobj /S /Span Try our expert-verified textbook solutions with step-by-step explanations. 95 0 obj /Pg 2 0 R >> >> /S /Span << The basic characteristis of a computer system that we typically need to measure are: Ia count of how many times an event occurs, 0:32. Performance is determined by execution time as performance is inversely proportional to execution time. The average time it takes to render a screen or page. /S /Span /K [4] /C /SC118793 << Search. /S /Span ���T!w.��В�=g��e���j�J�B �^,q0�2�>i�* lGpЭ��4mk���k�?�>�I~_؃�d��ߑ� f��X�&Sl��Gm��i7 v$�n�U�l_�">��t�S�W��oB6�Ü;�0������%>Z�2�I��. ... complicated since some combinations of computer architecture and software will result in some or all of the data being replicated up to N times, where N is the number of processors being used. /C /SC118818 In-Network Performance Metrics Jitter is an undesirable deviation from the actual periodicity of the periodic signal assumed in electronics and telecommunications, often compared to a reference clock source. /P 56 0 R Performance Metrics; Performance Metrics Posted on April 06, 2020. /D [2 0 R /XYZ 48 735 null] One way to think about execution time is that it equals the number of instructions … Subject: Computer Science Courses: Computer Architecture and Organisation. << /Pg 2 0 R 39 0 obj 36 0 obj << /K [25] /K [30] endobj 90 0 obj This paper proposes a framework of new metrics able to assess performance and energy efficiency of cloud computing communication systems, processes and protocols. << >> /D [2 0 R /XYZ 84 51 null] /K [42] Response time is the time from start to completion of a task. /ActualText (�� �) endobj << endobj 46 0 obj >> /C /SC118793 As a computer user, YOU define the performance! Browse more videos. /S /_Body /S /Figure << /K [21] /C /SC118793 << >> endobj /P 23 0 R /Length 667 �� 10 0 obj /Pg 2 0 R Computer Architecture 2 Fall 2012 – Lecture 1 Previous Lecture CPU Evolution What is Computer Architecture? Second, user-perceived metrics are hard to measure the upper bound performance of computer systems, which is the foundation of the performance model. >> 19 0 obj endobj >> It is measured on. /Producer (Normalizer 5.0.5 fmnorm) /S /Span That’s why Web Rendering is crucial in evaluating the performance of a website. 88 0 obj Client – Server Architecture (CSA) in a nutshell. 45 0 obj Technology Trends(Historical Data) ¨IC … /D [2 0 R /XYZ 48 589 null] /S /Span endobj 1 See answer shubhamrajr9476 is waiting for your help. /P 29 0 R /K [24] /Pg 2 0 R << endobj << >> 70 0 obj /K [55] /K [35] endobj stream >> /ActualText (�� �) These new architectures will have the ability to … Introduction to Intel® PCM (Performance Counter Monitor) The complexity of computing systems has tremendously increased over the last decades. /S /Span during this section, we'll dis-cuss various dimensions of scalability and performance laws. /Pg 2 0 R Computer A has a clock cycle time of 250 ps and a CPI of 2.0 for some program, and computer B has a clock cycle time of 500 ps and a CPI of 1.2 for the same program. To be more precise, rendering is the process of translating a server’s response into the picture a browser displays whenever a user visits a website. Relative Performance. Computer performance is the amount of work accomplished by a computer system. /Pg 2 0 R endobj endobj DOI: 10.1109/ICACEA.2015.7164736 Corpus ID: 14047460. /K [9] << In computer architecture, speedup is a number that measures the relative performance of two systems processing the same problem. << 74 0 obj /K [8] /P 29 0 R Add your answer and earn points. It basically depends on response time, throughput and execution time of a computer system. /S /Span << /S /Span CMSC 411, Computer Architecture 1 Lecture 4 Performance Evaluation and Metrics. /K [41] >> >> Computer Architecture Lectures on Performance Metrics. >> endobj >> endobj /I << /Pg 2 0 R /ID (F319491) /K [7] /P 43 0 R /K [28] The best-known metric is subjective appraisal by the direct manager.1. /K [20] /C /SC118790 79 0 obj The notion of speedup was established by Amdahl's law, which was particularly focused on parallel processing. A canonical HPEC application is used to illustrate basic concepts. 17 0 obj /K [18] We have implemented a set of simple and straight-forward performance indicators to address this problem. /Pg 2 0 R endstream /P 56 0 R /C /SC118793 25 0 obj The question of how to measure processor speed is not as simple as it appears. << Compare your ad with the one at the beginning of Chapter 5 (p. 120). << New questions in Social Sciences . /S /Span << 106 0 obj endobj << /P 56 0 R Annual Daylighting Performance Metrics, Explained Adopted by the Illuminating Engineering Society, Spatial Daylight Autonomy and Annual Sunlight Exposure allow designers to quantify and compare the success of daylit spaces. << /S /Span endobj << /ActualText (�� �) /K [52] << 49 0 obj /S /Span /Pg 2 0 R /S /Span JOURNAL OF CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT. /P 29 0 R /P 62 0 R /P 92 0 R 61 0 obj /S /Span >> /C /SC118793 /S /Span >> >> /P 43 0 R 43 0 obj 52 0 obj << /S /Span endobj << /K [11] /C /SC118793 /P 94 0 R << /K [13] /ActualText (�� �) endobj The chapter discusses different types of parallelism are reviewed, and performance analysis techniques. /K [23] 68 0 obj /Pg 2 0 R 99 0 obj Execution Time. 3-Jul-18 CASS2018 - Performance Metrics 4. /ActualText (�� �) << /S /Span 3 0 obj 2 looking solely at the … endobj >> Watch fullscreen. >> %PDF-1.3 endobj >> /Pg 2 0 R /Pg 2 0 R /Pg 2 0 R >> 81 0 obj >> endobj >> /C /SC118793 /S /Span << /S /Span endobj As computer architects, we frequently analyze the per-formance of systems, and we have developed well-under-stood metrics for reporting and comparing system performances. H��W�r�F|�W�#�EA�l�R��qV[[���l?���D���e�2I���+�gf ��R�ΜK��>��f�? /ActualText (�� �) Junior Lexus. DOI: 10.1109/ICACEA.2015.7164736 Corpus ID: 14047460. 47 0 obj These are characteristics of the system that are needed for metrics measurement. << Hierarchical cache subsystems, non-uniform memory, simultaneous multithreading and out-of-order execution have a huge impact on the performance and compute capacity of modern processors. /Pg 2 0 R /Pg 2 0 R >> << endobj Architect Magazine: Architectural Design | Architecture Online: The premier site for architecture industry news & building resources for architects and architecture industry professionals. /K [5] /Creator (FrameMaker 7.0) /S /Span 75 0 obj 55 0 obj /D [2 0 R /XYZ 48 572 null] Computer Architecture Lectures on Performance Metrics. << >> >> /C /SC118793 << /P 43 0 R Performance Metrics for Parallel Systems by D. M. Pressel ARL-TR-2145 January 2000 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. >> >> /S /Span Operational metrics. Used this way, IT metrics help determine gaps between current and desired performance, track progress over time, and demonstrate how process improvements impact performance. /D [2 0 R /XYZ 48 426 null] /C /SC118793 << Outline •Measurements and metrics: ⎻Performance, Cost, Dependability, Power •Guidelines and principles in the design of computers •CPU Performance CS425 - Vassilis Papaefstathiou 3. endobj >> This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 4 pages. >> >> endobj endobj 67 0 obj /S /Span /Pg 2 0 R endobj /K [2] /K [40] << >> /Pg 2 0 R There are a number of ways of measuring the performance of a computer system or indeed that of the components that make up a computer system. /Subtype /XML /P 29 0 R It can be also called latency, running, time, wall clock time, response time, elapsed time and execution time. /P 94 0 R Todd Hamilton, iWatch concept. /C /SC118793 >> /S /Span /Pg 2 0 R X Y. Log in. /K [37] /C /SC118793 64 0 obj << /K [12] So, a single computation-centric metric like FLOPS is simple but powerful in the system and architecture community. /C /SC118793 << /S /Span /Pg 2 0 R >> endobj CS6810 -- Lecture 1. 16 0 obj /P 43 0 R Performance Metrics for Parallel Systems by D. M. Pressel ARL-TR-2145 January 2000 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. - Evaluate designs with quantitative metrics (performance, power, cost) Navigate Computing Landscape - Architects work at the hardware-software interface - Technologies are emerging - Applications are demanding - Systems are scaling . /P 23 0 R Find a current ad for a laptop computer and answer the following questions: Circle those performance metrics that correspond to speed values. /S /Span >> /S /Span /Pg 2 0 R /S /Span /K [22] endobj Metrics are criteria to compare the performances of a system. Sign up. /S /Span /C /SC118793 /C /SC118793 >> By these measured values, actual values which describe the system can be derived from the, It is the time between start and end of an interval. >> CS425 - Vassilis Papaefstathiou 2. /Title (A) /C /SC118793 7 0 obj 65 0 obj /S /Span /Pg 2 0 R << /K [49] 5 years ago | 43 views. Client-Server Architecture is the backbone of any web application. /P 56 0 R endobj /P 56 0 R /C /SC118793 /D [2 0 R /XYZ 309 94 null] Underline those performance metrics that correspond to memory values. /K [6] /P 29 0 R >> endobj /D [2 0 R /XYZ 325 436 null] /Pg 2 0 R 48 0 obj endobj /Type /Metadata /D [2 0 R /XYZ null null null] 91 0 obj >> /P 94 0 R /C /SC118793 101 0 obj /S /Span >> endobj << /P 29 0 R CS6810 -- Lecture 1. When you look at the computer engineering methodology you have technology trends that happen and various improvements that happen with respect to technology and this will give rise to newer and newer architectures. >> 76 0 obj /K [46] << Performance Performance relies on an oversized number of things in an exceedingly distributed system. 96 0 obj endobj /P 43 0 R /S /Span Tags: Energy Star Program, LEDs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Architectural Lighting, Performance Metrics Posted on October 05, 2016 A Reality … << /K [14] Such a program can in theory be transformed into HPF. /P 29 0 R /C /SC118793 >> The proposed metrics have been evaluated for the most common data center architectures including fat tree three-tier, BCube, DCell and Hypercube. But … /ActualText (�� �) /ActualText (�� �) to reliability, speed, accuracy, and availability of the services. >> /Pg 2 0 R /P 56 0 R 35 0 obj /Filter /FlateDecode 5th: Homework 1 release (due on Sept. 12th) ¨This lecture ¤Technology trends ¤Measuring performance ¤Principles of computer design ¤Power and energy ¤Cost and reliability. Performance Metrics — Example Suppose we have two implementation of the same instruction set architecture. /S /Span /S /Span /S /Figure /P 56 0 R /K [33] 63 0 obj ANALYSIS Performance metrics are needed to live various distributed systems. >> /D [2 0 R /XYZ 348 404 null] /D [2 0 R /XYZ 53 759 null] /Pg 2 0 R /Pg 2 0 R /P 56 0 R /S /Span endobj >> /D [2 0 R /XYZ 309 204 null] endobj 97 0 obj << << Online application performance. endobj << /C /SC118793 /K [53] << Here are 8 of the key performance metrics every architecture and engineering firm should be tracking: Revenue: Revenue recognized by architecture and engineering firms is shaped substantially by the contract type(s) in effect for each project. /S /Span /Pg 2 0 R /C /SC118793 << /ActualText (�� �) Management by objectives is a management model aimed at improving the performance of an organization by translating organizational goals into specific individu… 109 0 obj PERFORMANCE METRICS CS/ECE 6810: Computer Architecture Mahdi NazmBojnordi Assistant Professor School of Computing University of Utah. >> /K [50] PH��b�B}��U]$e*X�e�(Q����P)�d�:��9,1w,�s70ϫ��/��U[nP��>�� �z���bu^4�n��J6U�a�h�,��bKV�ܩi�IMӥ3 �+n��s�v��>a~]���V��*�We�A�o������jk�M��i��e��v=ѝ�dw���݉.v��g ���ɚC�c9� ��-���m���o��J����oYC�I#6��(@�� /P 29 0 R >> 26 0 obj /P 56 0 R Management by objectivesA way to structure the subjective appraisal of a manager is to use management by objectives. /K [36] >> 54 0 obj << 37 0 obj /K [34] >> /C /SC118793 /C /SC118793 endobj /C /SC118793 >> /K [15] /A [107 0 R] 32 0 obj /K [1] endobj In-order Datapath (built, ECE152) Chip Multiprocessors (understand, experiment ECE552) ECE 552 / CPS 550 7 ECE 552 Executive Summary . Computer architects have learned to make use of the increasing numbers and improved characteristics of the transistors to design continually higher-performance computer systems. 60 0 obj >> Enterprise architecture teams often struggle with measuring and communicating the value of their function. << Different users have different definitions of performance You are already familiar with some performance metrics Clock Frequency: My computer runs at 500MHz, yours only at 300MHz, so my computer is better than yours! 110 0 obj << >> /ActualText (�� �) 102 0 obj A building interior filled with daylight is one of the most photogenic and iconic demonstrations of sustainable design. /Pg 2 0 R endobj /K [48] Performance metrics of web crawler in client-server and MVC architecture @article{Badgujar2015PerformanceMO, title={Performance metrics of web crawler in client-server and MVC architecture}, author={Jyotsana Badgujar and Manisha Jailia and A. Kumar}, journal={2015 International Conference on Advances in Computer Engineering and … /C /SC118793 108 0 obj >> /C /SC118793 78 0 obj >> << << CPU benchmarks are available. endobj >> /C /SC118793 /P 56 0 R 11 0 obj /C /SC118793 40 0 obj /S /Span /P 56 0 R /K [29] In theory, such a program is highly portable. >> /P 43 0 R Jitter can be observed by characteristics such as the frequency of consecutive pulses, the amplitude of the signal or the phase … Overview ¨Announcement ¤Sept. /C /SC118793 >> /P 56 0 R endobj /C /SC118793 << /P 23 0 R endobj /K [31 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 35 0 R 36 0 R 37 0 R 38 0 R 39 0 R 40 0 R 41 0 R 42 0 R] /D [2 0 R /XYZ 146 597 null] >> Performance metrics of web crawler in client-server and MVC architecture @article{Badgujar2015PerformanceMO, title={Performance metrics of web crawler in client-server and MVC architecture}, author={Jyotsana Badgujar and Manisha Jailia and A. Kumar}, journal={2015 International Conference on Advances in Computer Engineering and … (3 points) 73 0 obj >> << The speed with which a computer executes programs is affected by the design of its hardware and its machine language instructions. /C /SC118818 /Pg 2 0 R endobj 14 0 obj /K [44 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 48 0 R 49 0 R 50 0 R 51 0 R 52 0 R 53 0 R 54 0 R 55 0 R] /K [0] /D [2 0 R /XYZ 386 418 null] IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture: 53: 86: 9. Performance Metrics.docx - ADVANCED COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE Survey on Computer Performance Measuring Metrics MARRIUM MAQSOOD MSCS20067 Survey of Computer, Survey on Computer Performance Measuring Metrics, Survey of Computer Performance Measuring Metrics, It is the process to measure the performance of the system. /K [51] /S /_Body /K [16] /Pg 2 0 R << endobj /ActualText (�� �) << One simple measure is the number of instructions that can be executed per second, expressed in millions of instructions per … Generally, metrics are related. endobj endobj /A [100 0 R] << 89 0 obj << /S /Span Y Xn. endobj /S /Span For example, it might have been written in CM-Fortran and targeted at the CM-5 made by Thinking Machines. Playing next. “Computer Architecture in Cory Hall” JR.S00 2 Review Lecture 1 • Class Organization – Class Projects • Trends in the Industry and Driving Forces. /K [43] endobj Then we'll examine system scalability against OS images and therefore the limiting factors encountered. Computer performance metrics (things to measure) include availability, response time, channel capacity, latency, completion time, service time, bandwidth, throughput, relative efficiency, scalability, performance per watt, compression ratio, instruction path length and speed up. >> /C /SC118793 endobj The word performance in computer performance means “How well is the computer doing the work it is supposed to do?”. << endobj Performance can also be modeled and simulated instead of measured; one example of this is using state transition diagrams to model queuing performance or to use a Network Simulator. /Pg 2 0 R /Pg 2 0 R >> >> We review the many performance metrics that have been proposed for parallel systems (i.e., program - architecture combinations). 10s on A, 15s on B. /C /SC118793 59 0 obj /Pg 2 0 R << endobj >> Client Server Architecture (CSA) Web Performance Metrics; How to test your application? /K [10] … /ID (F319503) To be effective, they are often compared against established benchmarks, which provide context for the KPI’s value. endobj PERFORMANCE METRICS CS/ECE 6810: Computer Architecture Mahdi NazmBojnordi Assistant Professor School of Computing University of Utah . There are many different ways to measure the performance of a network, as each network is different in nature and design. /S /Span << endobj << /C /SC118793 Generally, metrics are related to reliability, speed, accuracy, and availability of the services. 69 0 obj /ActualText (�� �) << /K [44] endobj >> 53 0 obj /P 43 0 R /P 87 0 R endobj }�l'g[�.�ˮ�1��%��l;����l�� �����x��>�ee�dU9����ong?�f�o9�l��q����sxa��W)��8��|�ˌ��zc�����Ï�ُ?�ή?�R�����朽��\���F��`��Ǭ;�1vw9D��PE�߹�˨��z���܍��z�����������?/�t��"A���yW����7��UqhQ��N�Y#�F.أ`�Z�ڊ�ɏ,)����`�^���/W� 29%�ƞ.�SP�_]��F /Pg 2 0 R Spring 2020 CS3853 Computer Architecture 18 Bottom-line of Performance Metrics Two quotes from “Computer Organization and Design,” – “Execution time is the only valid and unimpeachable measure of performance.” – “Similarly, any measure that summarizes performance should reflect execution time.” /C /SC118793 Explain Computer Architecture Course 150 Words Explain Computer Architecture Course 150 Words This problem has been solved! /S /Span endobj /C /SC118793 Finally, performance metrics integrat e application metrics with machine metrics to give an overall view of the performance of a specific appli cation on a particular computer system. /K [26] 77 0 obj /C /SC118818 /P 56 0 R Millions of Instructions Per Second (MIPS): In a second, my computer can execute 8 million instructions, while yours only 5 million instructions, so my computer … endobj /K [27] Metrics simply measures quantitative assessment that focuses on countable values most commonly used for comparing and tracking performance of system. /S /Span /Pg 2 0 R Commonly Used Performance Metrics (1) Clock rate – Most prominent indication of performance often is the frequency of the processors central clock – This performance metric completely ignores how much computation is actually performed – It is repeatable, easy to … endobj By Kevin Van Den Wymelenberg, Alen Mahić. 9 0 obj /K [17] /Pg 2 0 R /Pg 2 0 R It is mostly independent on the size of the application. << 4 0 obj >> >> Metrics for design modeling allows developers or software engineers to evaluate or estimate quality of design and … ¥Computer Architecture >> instruction sets ¥Computer Architecture skill sets are different Ð5 Quantitative principles of design ÐQuantitative approach to design ÐSolid interfaces that really work ÐTechnology tracking and anticipation ¥CS 252 to learn new skills, transition to research ¥Computer Science atthe crossroads fromsequential

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